Fungi contain different species. Some fungi are the part of our normal flora but they can cause disease in immune compromised patients, people taking broad spectrum antibiotics and people taking corticosteroids. Fungi are present in air, soil, water and rocks. If the person inhales these fungi, they cause severe deep fungal infections. Here we have Top 10 Worst Fungal Infections, you must know about these infections because prevention is better then cure.
Candidiasis describes a group of superficial yeast like fungal infections involving the mucous membranes, skin and body organs.on the skin the lesions are red bright red with small pustules. In mouth it appear as white patch on the tongue and cheeks. In the vagina it produces itching. Topical anti fungal therapy is required for treatment.
Other name for thrush is acute pseudo membranous candidosis. It is usually associated with immunosuppressant and xerostomia. Thrush can be seen in healthy neonates. It appears as whitish yellow membrane which is easy to remove. Underline mucosa show erythema. Thrush specifically affects the soft palate. It is rarely symptomatic.
8. Median Rhomboid Glossitis
Other name is chronic erythematous candidosis. It is uncommon. It appears as central area of atrophy on dorsum of tongue. It usually occurs as a result of corticosteroid inhaler use. Usually asymptomatic and sometimes give kissing lesion of the palate. Treatment includes reassurance of patient, removal of causative agent and topical anti-fungal therapy.
7. Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidosis
CMC consists of recurrent superficial infections of skin, mucous membranes and nails. Causative organism is Candida albicans. It can be localized or diffuse. It can be associated with syndromes or can be associated with iron deficiency.
6. Candidosis Endocrinopathy Syndrome
It is chronic mucocutaneous candidosis and is an autoimmune disease. Following diseases are present in this syndrome; diabeties mellitus, hypoparathyroidism, Addison’s disease, testicular dysfunction and hypothyroidism. Loss of hairs and vitiligo are also present. Oral features included; chronic mucocutaneous candidosis, pigmentation, enamel hypoplasia, iron deficiency, vitiligo and alopecia.
5. Candidosis Thymoma Syndrome
This syndrome consists of three things; CMC, myasthenia gravis and thymoma formation. It occurs in third decade of life. Blood cells show hypogammaglobulinemia, aplastic anemia and neutropenia. Difficulty in chewing and speech is also present.
4. DiGeorge Syndrome
This syndrome is associated with cardiac problems, abnormal facies, hypocalcemia and cleft palate. Features of this syndrome are; cleft palate, central cyanosis, enamel hypoplasia, CMC and liability to viral infections. Treatment includes systemic and topical anti-fungal. Treat the predisposing factors.
3. Chronic Hyperplastic Candidosis
It is known as candidal leukoplakia. Not common. Typically affects the retro commissural area. It appears as white speckled plaque or nodule. It has strong association with tobacco smoking. It shows dysplastic change which is the feature of cancer. Treatment includes; remove the predisposing agent (smoking), topical anti-fungal therapy, biopsy of lesion and follow up
2. Chronic Atrophic Candidosis
This infection is common and is commonly associated with long term removable appliance wearing. Dentures are associated with it. Usually symptomless, shows erythema, atrophy beneath the removable appliance. Treatment includes; maintain good oral hygiene, soak the appliance in anti-fungal agent when not in use, topical anti-fungal therapy and apply miconazole to the fitting surface of appliance,
1. Angular Cheilitis
It is an oral manifestation.Angular cheilitis is associated with many predisposing factors. Which includes; reduced lower facial height as in old age patients, iron deficiency and Vitamin B complex deficiency, bacterial infection and crohn’s disease? Remove the cause and topical anti – fungal therapy is required for treatment.